The following is respectfully quoted from “Treasury of Precious Qualities” by Jigme Lingpa:
There are ten ways of behaving, related to body, speech and mind, that are to be abandoned.
To begin with, there are three physical acts: killing, taking what is not given, and sexual misconduct. These are followed by four negative actions of speech: lying, divisive speech, worthless chatter, and harsh words. Finally, there are three negative actions of mind: covetousness, evil intent, and wrong views.
A complete act of killing takes place according to five criteria.
a) A living being must be the object of the action.
b) There must be no mistaking the intended victim.
c) There must be the specific intention to kill.
d) The act must be performed knowingly.
e) The death of the being must ensue.
Similar to this are all acts of aggression when death occurs, through beating and so forth, even when death is not actually intended.
The act of taking what is not freely given is fully accomplished when four elements are present.
a) The object concerned must be the possession of another.
b) The agent knows that this is the case.
c) The agent knowingly appropriates it.
d) The object moves its location and becomes the agent’s property.
Related to theft are acts whereby things are acquired by deceit, for instance, in commercial transactions, or by extortion, or through the imposition of unjust fines, confiscation, and so on.
3. Sexual Misconduct
Sexual misconduct takes place when three elements are present.
a) It is known that the object of desire is the partner of another, or else a person engaged by someone else. One is aware that one is in the presence of a representation of the Buddha, or of persons with pratimoksha ordination (clerical or lay). One has intercourse with someone judged inappropriate in terms of custom, time, or any other criteria.
b) Actual physical union.
Included in sexual misconduct are improper sexual acts.
Lying occurs when four elements are present.
a) The speaker must not be mistaken about what he or she wants to say.
b) The speaker must have the intention to deceive.
c) The lie must be consciously pronounced.
d) The hearer must be deceived.
Associated with lying are all attempts to twist the truth by deceptive means and the concealment of the facts in order to cheat people.
5. Divisive Speech
Here, three factors are necessary.
a) The people affected must be living in harmony or at least in a relationship of neutrality.
b) The agent speaks in order to divide the parties.
c) Discord arises between them, or at least the meaning of the speaker’s words comes home to them.
Allied to divisive speech is the repetition of criticism or abuse spoken by others in order to nurture resentment.
6. Worthless chatter
This comprises three elements.
a) The conversation is motivated by the defilements.
b) The mind strays to what is unwholesome.
c) Futile chatter occurs: in other words, conversation productive of attachment or aversion. This covers, for instance, discussions about the sacrifices described in the Vedas, poetry, historical discourses about the rise and fall of empires, singing, recounting of legends, erotic literature, and tales of adventure and crime.
Related to worthless chatter are all unnecessary conversations about wars, crime, and so forth, even if this does not provoke attachment or hatred.
7. Harsh words
This depends on three factors.
a) A specific person must be addressed.
b) This person is spoken to harshly and hidden faults are exposed.
c) The words pierce the person’s heart, causing trauma and sorrow.
Allied to verbal abuse are all kinds of talk that, though superficially sweet, bring about the unhappiness of others.
Covetousness has two factors.
a) The object in mind must be the wealth or reputation of another.
b) One must be obsessed with the other person’s qualities and belongings and want to take them for oneself.
Related to covetousness are all reflections on the wealth and advantages of others, with the wish to have them for oneself.
9. Evil Intent
Two factors are required for evil intent.
a) The object must be a living being.
b) The agent hates and deeply wishes harm to the other, desiring his or her misery, whether physical or mental. Wishing harm on others may be connected with anyone of nine objects: those who cause trouble to oneself, those who attack one’s friends, and those who aid one’s enemies. These three categories, multiplied by three according to past, present and future, come to nine objects all together. In addition, there are five factors that accompany evil intent. These are: hatred, rancor, injured pride, vengefulness, and ignorance.
Related to evil intent is discomfort at the advantages of others, such as riches and long life, and the wish that they did not have them but rather their opposites.
10. Wrong Views
There are two kinds of false views.
a) Disbelief in the ineluctable principle of karma.
b) Belief in a permanent self and phenomena, or the opposite, namely, nihilism, the belief that nothing survives death.
Related to wrong views are claims, born of animosity, that a sublime being has faults when this is not the case, and conversely the denial of the qualities that such a being possesses—thus creating doubts in the minds of others.